endstream Thirdly, biodiversity conservation can be enhanced when information about plants that are harvested and utilized in the management of ailments within particular areas are available . SourceModified Amendment of PDF/A standard Traditional medicine is an important component of the health care system of most developing countries. A reference to the original document from which this one is derived. (4) What is the percentage of plants that are used for treatment and management of a single disease versus multiple diseases? It is hoped that this baseline data will, in addition to preservation of indigenous knowledge, generate interest for studies regarding the harvesting patterns, bioactivity, and safety of the medicinal plants being used. name InstanceID In 2000 a Commonwealth Medicinal Plants Business Forum was held in Cape Town with delegates from across Africa. Box LG 55, Legon, Ghana, Evidence-Based Complementary and Alternative Medicine, https://www.cdc.gov/globalhealth/countries/ghana/, J. xmpTPg สมุนไพร อภัย ภูเบศ ร ลด น้ำหนัก , อภัยภูเบศร ขมิ้นชัน , ขมิ้นชันอภัยภูเบศร , ขมิ้นชัน อภัยภูเบศร , thai herbal pharmacopoeia 2017 / thai herbal pharmacopoeia 2016 reference / ดาวน์โหลด thai pharmacopoeia … According to the World Health Organization (WHO) about 80% of developing countries depend on traditional medicines for their primary health care needs . Data were collected from 45 traditional healers (Table 1) through interviews using semistructured questionnaire with predetermined open-ended and direct questions . ISE International Society of Ethnobiology Code of Ethics, 2016, S. Ragosta, I. Harris, N. Gyakari, E. Otoo, and A. Asase, “Partcipatory ethnomedicinal cancer research with Fante-Akan herbalists in rural Ghana,”, A. Asase and G. Oppong-Mensah, “Traditional antimalarial phytotherapy remedies in herbal markets in southern Ghana,”, A. M. Towns, S. Ruysschaert, E. van Vliet, and T. van Andel, “Evidence in support of the role of disturbance vegetation for women's health and childcare in Western Africa,”, A. Agelet, M. A. Bonet, and J. Valles, “Homegardens and their role as a main source of medicinal plants in mountain regions of Catalonia (Iberian Peninsula),”, C. High and C. M. Shackleton, “The comparative value of wild and domestic plants in home gardens of a South African rural village,”, J. Salick, A. Mejia, and T. Anderson, “Non-timber forest products integrated with natural forest management, Rio San Juan, Nicaragua,”, R. L. Chazdon and F. G. Coe, “Ethnobotany of woody species in second-growth, old-growth, and selectively logged forests of northeastern Costa Rica,”, R. M. Kunwar, L. Mahat, R. P. Acharya, and R. W. Bussmann, “Medicinal plants, traditional medicine, markets and management in far-west Nepal,”, A. P. Dold and M. L. Cocks, “The trade in medicinal plants in the Eastern Cape Province, South Africa,”, P. D. Coley, J. P. Bryant, and F. S. Chapin III, “Resource availability and plant antiherbivore defense,”, D. A. Herms and W. J. Mattson, “The dilemma of plants: to grow or defend,”, P. N. Okolie and B. N. Obasi, “Diurnal variation of cyanogenic glucosides, thiocyanate and rhodanese in cassava,”, A. Gurib-Fakim, “Medicinal plants: traditions of yesterday and drugs of tomorrow,”, T. van Andel, S. van Onselen, B. Myren, A. Further studies on the methods and quantities of plant materials that are harvested for treatment will improve our understanding on the impacts of harvesting of medicinal plants on biodiversity conservation in the area. conformance Kumasi Perception Topography of an area affects rainfall, soil type, and amount of light reaching a plant and therefore indirectly also affects plant growth and development. Copyright © 2017 Augustine A. Boadu and Alex Asase. The monograph was replaced in May 2017 by the publication of the DAB monograph. uuid:6b655e57-b237-4541-9ad5-ef80ef2e6589 As the BP 2017 is legally effective from 1st January 2017, it is timely to consider the changes that are shaping the life sciences landscape, as well as current and future challenges and opportunities in ensuring the quality of medicines. All our natural (herbal/alternative) medicines are based on research from Ghana Herbal Pharmacopoeia, health plants books, other encyclopedias and field experience. Here, we investigated aspects of the diversity and harvesting of medicinal plants as well as the modes of preparation and routes of administration of the herbal medicines. Thai Herbal Pharmacopoeia is the Pharmacopoeia providing quality standards for herbal drugs and herbal drug preparations marketed in Thailand. The rich history of use of herbal medicines and innovative utilization of plants as sources of medicines in Ghana, and broadly within Africa, has been passed down through generations largely as oral tradition  and as such it is important that this knowledge be documented. Thai Herbal Pharmacopoeia 2017 เป็นตำรามาตรฐานยาสมุนไพรไทย มีจำนวน 714 หน้า จัดพิมพ์ในปี พ.ศ. name Efforts a imed at promoting traditional medicinal plants to A total of 52 species of plants belonging to 28 plant families were reportedly used for treatment and management of 42 diseases and ailments. It is widely known that members of the families contain secondary metabolites such as tannins, phenolics, and alkaloids that are responsible for their bioactivity. orcid In recognition of the global upsurge in the use of herbal and traditional medicines in recent times resulting in a huge market and wealth creation, the Federal Ministry of Health has inaugurated a 16-man Expert committee for the review of the first edition of the Nigeria Herbal Pharmacopoeia. <> xmpMM URI In the study area, diversity existed among healers in the amount of menstruum (mainly water), length of time of boiling, and how long the decoctions were kept. Part pdfToolbox %PDF-1.4 To the best of our knowledge no specific previous ethnobotanical report on use of herbal medicines as yet exists for the studied communities. The natives are the Akuapim people although other ethnic groups are common in the area. The aim of the present study was to document herbal medicines used by traditional healers to treat and manage human diseases and ailments by some communities living in Ghana. The use of members of the above families in herbal medicines is widely known in Ghana . Selection of the studied communities was based on preliminary surveys by the first author, which showed that traditional healers in the communities possess rich but undocumented traditional knowledge about use of herbal medicines. In the latter case, characterization of the active extract could enable structure-related activity studies leading to possible synthesis of a more potent drug to be developed. amd Christianity is the predominant religion in the area. Only infusions were administered via the rectal and nasal routes. converted to PDF/A-2b The utilization of herbal medicines and associated medicinal plants in Ghana has been documented by many authors [e.g., [3–5]] although there are still many indigenous cultures and communities in Ghana that possess a great store of traditional knowledge about herbal medicines for treatment of various human ailments, which are yet to be documented. pdfx It is possible to isolate the bioactive agents or compounds from extracts made from plants for detailed pharmacological and clinical investigations to be made. endobj The native people of the area are Krobo but there are people from other ethnic groups such as Ewes, Akans, and Hausas. Healers did not explain why they avoided clayey soil and we did not find any scientific evidence that clayey soil plants do not produce pharmacologically active secondary metabolites. Our result is similar to that of , which indicated that healers favoured primary forest and wild habitats in terms of medicinal plant collection. American Herbal Pharmacopoeia (AHP) is a California-based nonprofit research organization operating since 1996. For these reasons, the harvest should be documented and sustainable so this can continue to be a profitable resource for future generations . Acrobat Distiller 10.1.5 (Windows); modified using iText® 5.3.5 ©2000-2012 1T3XT BVBA (AGPL-version) Temperatures are usually high ranging between 26 and 35°C. Trease and Evans' Pharmacognosy 16th edition. For example, a comparative study of contemporary plant uses in Ghana shows that the materia medica of the Fanti, Ga, and Ashanti has changed considerably over time . Human diseases commonly treated and/managed with herbal medicines. American Herbal Pharmacopoeia Grows Its Publishing Roots. 2017-11-29T22:52:07+08:00 editorInfo Augustine A. Boadu, Alex Asase, "Documentation of Herbal Medicines Used for the Treatment and Management of Human Diseases by Some Communities in Southern Ghana", Evidence-Based Complementary and Alternative Medicine, vol. Commercial trade often stimulates extensive wild-collection, which often has negative effects on medicinal plant population sizes and recovery after harvesting. Nakai, were ferns whereas the rest of the plants were vascular plants. Secondly, through further research such as phytochemical, biochemical, pharmacological, and clinical studies information on indigenous herbal medicines can lead to discovery of new bioactive agents for treatment of ailments. We are committed to sharing findings related to COVID-19 as quickly as possible. B. Calixto, “Twenty-five years of research on medicinal plants in Latin America: a personal view,”, A. Hensel, E. Kisseih, M. Lechtenberg, F. Petereit, C. Agyare, and A. Asase, “From ethnopharmacological field study to phytochemistry and preclinical research: the example of Ghanaian medicinal plants for improved wound healing,” in. comment. 1 0 obj The study was conducted in eight communities in southern Ghana. Although there are current efforts to integrate herbal medicine (HM) into mainstream healthcare in Ghana, there is paucity of empirical evidence on the acceptability and concurrent use of HM, in the formal health facilities in Ghana. The Akuapim-North Municipality covers a land area of ca. About 43% of the species of plants were reportedly used in treatment of a single disease whereas the rest of the plants (57%) were involved in treatment of more than one disease/ailment. This can be a position at which the document has been changed since the most recent event history (stEvt:changed). 10.1186/s12906-017-2025-4 application/pdf However, indigenous knowledge about herbal medicines of many Ghanaian cultures has not yet been investigated. http://ns.adobe.com/xap/1.0/sType/Part# According to , time of the day should be given important consideration when collecting medicinal plants in order to obtain optimum yield of desired products. Despite the recent interest in molecular modelling, combinatorial chemistry, and other synthetic chemistry techniques by pharmaceutical companies and funding organizations, natural products, and particularly medicinal plants, remain an important source of new drugs, new drug leads, and new chemical entities (NCEs) [9, 10]. Also known, as Siamese Cassia where its local name is, Abootre. However, differences exist in the preparations of decoctions and infusions both within healers and from place to place. pdf The fact that oral route of administration of the herbals was most common was not a surprise as this has been previously reported [18, 32]. %���� Map of study area showing communities where study was conducted. 2 Editor information: contains the name of each editor and his/her ORCID identifier. A structure containing the characteristics of a font used in a document. The Indian Pharmacopoeia Commission has initiated the process of providing Indian Pharmacopoeia Reference Substances to the stakeholders. Herbal drugs: sampling and sample preparation EUROPEAN PHARMACOPOEIA 6.0 01/2008:20820 2.8.20. Data were collected from 45 healers using ethnobo… 450 km2 and is located on longitude 6°1′N and latitude 0°50′W and at altitude 408 m above sea level. DerivedFrom Among the conditions treated with X. aethiopica in traditional medicine are cough (fruits and roots) bronchitis, dysentery and biliousness (fruits and stem bark) and boils and sores (leaves and bark) (Irvine, 1961; Usher, 1974; Burkill, 1985; Ghana Herbal Pharmacopoeia, 1992; Mshana et al., 2000). orcid A structure containing the characteristics of a font used in a document Text Medicinal plants are commonly used in the management of different ailments because they contain a variety of bioactive agents such as alkaloids and terpenoids [18, 19]. Biodata on traditional healers interviewed. Of the 28 families of plants, members of the Fabaceae, Euphorbiaceae, Asteraceae, and Sapindaceae were the most commonly used ones (12% in each case) in the herbal medicines (Figure 2(a)). XMP08 Spec: An ordered array of plate names that are needed to print the document (including any in contained documents). Knowledge of frequently reported diseases and/ailments can be an indication of health care issues in a region and it should be of great importance to health care organizations and government. Nevertheless, in some cases isolation of bioactive agents has been unsuccessful even though the extracts are active. The time of harvesting medicinal plants was investigated with respect to time of day (24 hr. It is also essential to scientifically evaluate the specific uses of the medicinal plants reported in the current study using plant materials from the area through pharmacological, toxicological, and clinical studies in order to ensure the safety of the people consuming the medicines and for possible drug development. http://www.aiim.org/pdfa/ns/id/ Daniel Boateng internal For biodiversity conservation, it is also important to know what quantities of plant materials are harvested, not only for home consumption but also for trade. 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