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endemic plant species in cape floristic region

Transactions of the Royal Society of South Africa: Vol. According to Takhtajan (1978), the following families are endemic or subendemic to the region: Grubbiaceae, Roridulaceae, Bruniaceae, Penaeaceae, Greyiaceae, Geissolomataceae, Retziaceae (Retzia) and Stilbaceae. There are some 6,191 endemic species in the Region. Incredibly, more than 6,200 (69 percent) of these species are found nowhere else in the world. Boland Mountain Complex has 1,600 plant species, 150 being endemic. Taking into account the three main factors of human impact on this region, the future prospect for the Cape Floristic region is bad. The Cape Florsitic Region has been identified as one of the world’s 18-biodiversity hotspot. Today, the bontebok numbers about 2,000, and the prospects for the species' survival are quite good. Other vegetation types are sandveld, a soft coastal scrubland found mostly on the west-facing coast of the Western Cape Province, on tertiary sands. It is the only floristic region of the Cape (South African) Floristic Kingdom, and includes only one floristic province, known as the Cape Floristic Province. The World Wide Fund for Nature divides the Cape floristic region into three ecoregions: the Lowland fynbos and renosterveld, Montane fynbos and renosterveld and the Albany thickets. Today, there are about 90 species of mammals in the hotspot, four of which are endemic, including two species of golden moles: the Fynbos golden mole (Amblysomus corriae) and the Endangered Van Zyl's golden mole (Cryptochloris zyli). The Cape Peninsula is a well known area of exceptional plant diversity and endemism within the Cape Floristic Region, but an accurate and complete listing of the endemic seed plant species has been lacking. The sta-tistics of families, genera and species; 3. Foremost amongst these is the Cape Floristic Region (CFR) where 8550 plant species, of which 68% are endemic, are crammed into 90 000 km 2 (Bond and Goldblatt 1984). reticulata , (B) Senecio elegans , (C) Olea exasperata , (D) Pelargonium capitatum , (E) Psoralea repens , (F) Agathosma apiculata , (G) Euclea racemosa , (H) Maytenus procumbens . Conservation International declared the Cape floristic region to be a biodiversity hotspot. Тахтаджян А. Л. Флористические области Земли / Академия наук СССР. [1] The economical worth of fynbos biodiversity, based on harvests of fynbos products (e.g. Small pockets of Afromontane forest (Southern Afrotemperate Forest) can be found in humid and sheltered areas. This area is predominantly coastal and mountainous, with a Mediterranean climate and rainy winters. None of the sites has less than 1,100 species. There are more than 40 species of amphibians in the hotspot. The Cape Floristic Region (CFR) is a species-rich mediterranean-climate area with almost 9000 species packed in only 90,000 km 2 , a remarkable 69% of the species being endemic. The fynbos ecoregions are designated one of the Global 200 priority ecoregions for conservation. Here we test whether plant populations in the CFR exhibit phylogeographic breaks across the boundaries between … Two amphibian genera are endemic, each represented by a single species: the Critically Endangered micro frog (Microbatrachella capensis), found in sandy, coastal fynbos heathland, and the montane marsh frog (Poyntonia paludicola), a species found in the mountain fynbos heathland. With regard to its biodiversity, there are approximately nine species per genus and 52 different plant families. Of the region's remaining large mammals, one of the most beautiful is the bontebok (Damaliscus dorcas dorcas), an antelope that, though nearly extinct in the mid-1800s, was saved by the dedication of a small group of conservationists. 2 285 plant species are known to be indigenous to the Cape Peninsula, which means that the Peninsula has the greatest concentration ofplant species (per unit area) within the Cape Floristic Region. The pincushion plant (Leucospermum sp.) Each biome has a unique mixture of… The Cape Floristic Region is a floristic region located near the southern tip of South Africa. The plant variety is based on soil types. The Mega Reserve includes more than 9,000 plant species of which 69% are endemic. Protecting Biodiversity by Empowering People. Cape Floristic Region is home to the greatest plant species in the world. Renosterveld is a grassy shrubland dominated by members of the daisy family (Asteraceae, particularly renosterbos (Elytropappus rhinocerotis), graminoids and geophytes, occurring on the base-rich shaley soils of the coastal forelands. In addition to its incredible botanical diversity, the Cape Floristic Region also supports substantial diversity among the fauna, with more than 560 higher vertebrate species. Some species are only found in small pockets and nowhere else on Earth, which is why the Cape Floristic Region was declared a biodiversity hotspot, one of 18 across the globe. CEPF is a joint initiative of l’Agence Française de Développement, Conservation International, the European Union, the Global Environment Facility, the Government of Japan and the World Bank. In all, this variable region supports six different biomes, and a stunning 55 distinct habitat types in a complex mosaic across the landscape. We used a very large dataset (>40% of all species) from the endemic-rich Cape Floristic Region (CFR) to explore the impact of different weighting techniques, coefficients to calculate similarity among the cells, and clustering approaches on biogeographical regionalisation. Although little is known about the invertebrate fauna of the region, the few groups that have been studied suggest high levels of endemism. One study on the Cape Peninsula found 111 invertebrate endemics in 471 square kilometers, a level higher than that of plants. The Cape Floristic Region is home to the greatest non-tropical concentration of higher plant species in the world, with 9,000 species crammed into its small extent. Ботанический институт им. [1] Thus, it is clear that the Cape Floristic Region has both economic and intrinsic biological value as a biodiversity hotspot.[1]. Fynbos evolved over millennia and is highly endemic. Sixteen of these are endemic, including the Critically Endangered Table Mountain ghost frog (Heleophryne rosei) which is found only on the slopes of famed Table Mountain. The Cape Floristic Region is home to the greatest non-tropical concentration of higher plant species in the world, with 9,000 species crammed into its small extent. Roughly half of the plant species are endemic to the South African Cape region, and many of them are found only in the Klein Karoo and nowhere else in the world. It is thought that the Cape Floristic Region is experiencing one of the most rapid rates of extinction in the world due to habitat loss, land degradation, and invasive alien plants.[6]. Most of the region is covered with fynbos, a sclerophyllous shrubland occurring on acid sands or nutrient-poor soils derived from Table Mountain sandstones (Cape Supergroup). Of more than 230 species of butterflies, about 30 percent are endemic. Some of the more distinctive fishes in the clear mountain streams of this region include the Cape galaxias (Galaxias zebratus), an elongated, scaleless fish, as well as several species of endemic redfin minnows (Pseudobarbus spp.). Nevertheless, the area is considered an Endemic Bird Area by BirdLife International, and is home to a number of true fynbos species such as the Cape sugarbird (Promerops cafer), the orange-breasted sunbird (Nectarinia violacea), the Protea canary (Serinus leucopterus) and the Cape siskin (Serinus totta). The Cape Fold Ecoregion, located within the Western and Eastern Cape Provinces of South Africa, is home to the highest percentage of threatened freshwater fishes in the country. The Cape Floristic Region is a floristic region located near the southern tip of South Africa. In fields related to biogeography, fynbos is known for its exceptional … The Cape floristic region, located in the Western Cape and parts of the Eastern Cape, was first named a UNESCO World Heritage Site in 2004. Incredibly, more than 6,200 (69 percent) of these species are found nowhere else in the world. — 247 с. Here, we present a list of the 158 species and 3 subspecies that are currently South Africa has a boggling amount of diversity in its plant life, including over 9,000 different species on its Cape Floristic Region. It contains an estimated 9 500 species, of which 70% do not grow anywhere else in the world. Fynbos is home to a diverse plethora of plant species including many members of the protea family (Proteaceae), heath family (Ericaceae), and reed family of restios (Restionaceae). Of the 320 or so regularly occurring species of land birds here, only six are endemic. Leucospermums and leucadendrons are two more famous genera endemic to the Cape floristic region. [1] Much of this diversity is associated with the fynbos biome, a Mediterranean-type, fire-prone shrubland. Among the best-recognized plant species in the hotspot are the proteas, particularly the king protea (Protea cynaroides), which is South Africa's national flower, and the red disa (Disa uniflora). The high levels of endemism present in the Cape Region are largely due to the presence of neoendemics rather than paleoendemic species. South Africa itself has the highest tortoise diversity on Earth, and five species are found almost exclusively within the Cape Floristic Region, including the Critically Endangered geometric tortoise (Psammobates geometricus), one of the rarest tortoise species in world. В. Л. Комарова. (1992). More than 6,200 of those species are not found anywhere else except in the Cape Floristic Region. The fynbos ecoregion is within the Mediterranean forests, woodlands, and scrub biome. In 2004, the "Cape Floral Region Protected Areas" were inscribed as a World Heritage Site. While many may think solely of the savanna when they think of South Africa, the country has seven other completely different ecological life zones, or biomes. The Baviaanskloof contains a highly diverse flora, since it is located on the convergence of three biodiversity hotspots: the Cape Floristic Region, the Succulent Karoo and the Maputaland-Pondoland-Albany hotspot. wildflowers) and eco-tourism, is estimated to be in the region of R77 million a year. Levels of species endemism in the Cape floristic region are among the highest in the world. The Region covers the Mediterranean climate region of South Africa in the Western Cape in the southwestern corner of the country, and extends eastward into the Eastern Cape, a transitional zone between the winter rainfall region to the west and the summer-rainfall region to the east in KwaZulu-Natal. Aim The evolutionary forces that gave rise to the exceptional plant species richness of the Cape Floristic Region (CFR) have also likely played a role at the intraspecific level (i.e. 2004: Inscribed on the World Heritage List under Natural Criteria ix and x. Furthermore, five of South Africa's 12 endemic plant families and 160 endemic genera are found only in this hotspot. This biodiversity hotspot in the Western Cape, known as “the hottest hotspot”, has the highest concentration of plant species in the world. Both disappeared in the 1800s. Covering 78,555 km², Cape Floristic Region hotspot is located entirely within the borders of South Africa. It is the only floristic region of the Cape (South African) Floristic Kingdom, and includes only one floristic province, known as the Cape Floristic Province. 1, pp. Translate the English site to your language: The rich biodiversity of the Cape Floristic Region Biodiversity Hotspot is due to an extensive and complex array of habitat types derived from topographical and climatic diversity in the region's rugged mountains, fertile lowlands, semi-arid shrublands and coastal dunes. © Conservation International/photo by Haroldo Castro, Chilean Winter Rainfall-Valdivian Forests. The avifauna of the Cape Floristic Region is characterized by low diversity, most likely the result of structural uniformity in the vegetation and a shortage of available food. These threats, combined with urbanization, the spread of agriculture and foreign plant species, seriously impact the unique diversity of the region. The species density is the highest in the world, making it one of only 18 biodiversity hotspots on the planet. Figure 6: Examples of widespread dune endemic plant species from the Holocene dune landscape around Cape St Francis in the southeastern Cape Floristic Region. Estimated, it has about 9,000 plant species and 1,435 threaten species. Also worth a mention is the Clanwilliam cedar (Widdringtonia cedarbergensis), a graceful but declining relict conifer endemic to the Cederberg mountains in the northwestern part of the region. Two of the most interesting mammals that once lived on the Cape are now extinct: the bluebuck (Hippotragus leucophaeus) and the quagga (Equus quagga), a subspecies of the plains zebra that had no stripes on the rear part of its body. "The alien invasive land snail. The hotspot is also the home of several small solitary antelope species, including the Cape grysbok (Raphicerus melanotis). Home to the greatest non-tropical concentration of higher plant species in the world, the region is the only hotspot that encompasses an entire floral kingdom, and holds five of South Africa’s 12 endemic plant families and 160 endemic genera. The vegetation is dependent on fire to stimulate new growth in a 15-year cycle. For the region in Delaware, see, Location of Cape Floristic Region in South Africa, Odendaal L. J., Haupt T. M. & Griffiths C. L. (2008). Reptile diversity in the Cape Floristic Region is relatively high, with about 100 species, nearly a quarter of which are endemic. The region has an extensive protected area network that protects a wide array of ecosystems, but limited information exists on the role of protected areas in conserving the endemic freshwater fish fauna of this region. The Fynbos Biome is considered by many to be synonymous with the Cape Floristic Region or Cape Floral Kingdom. Read more about the hotspot's species in our ecosystem profile (PDF - 1.3 MB). A number of mountain ranges are included in the Cape Floristic Region. [2][3], List of vegetation types of the Cape Floristic Region:[4][5]. (A) Heliophila linearis var. Cape Floristic Region is 78,555km2 and is known for its unique male and female plant species. These include the Critically Endangered geometric tortoise ( Psammobates geometricus ), the Cape sugarbird ( Promerops cafer ) and a number of antelope species. — 4000 экз. Most of the The results were used to revise the biogeographical subdivision of the CFR. 55-86. The analysis of big families (Containing more than 60 species); 4. Cape Floristic Region is one of six plant kingdoms and is the smallest, but riches in the world. Among the best-recognized plant species in the hotspot are the proteas, particularly the king protea (Protea cynaroides), which is South A… For the entire region, endemism at the species level is about 69 percent. The Cape Peninsula is a well-known area of exceptional plant diversity and endemism (Trinder-Smith et al., 1996a, Pauw and Johnson, 1999) within the southwestern core of the Cape Floristic Region (CFR) of southern Africa.The CFR is an area of high species diversity and endemism (Van Wyk and Smith, 2001), and the area experiences winter rain and summer drought, … Of the nearly 35 native freshwater fish species in the Cape Floristic Region Hotspot, more than a dozen are endemic. The analysis of endemic species and non-endemic species; 6.The floristic comparison in seed plants between East China and Japan. plant populations)—and thereby generating shared phylogeographic patterns among taxa. While the hotspot never supported concentrations of animals as dense as the African savannas, it did once have significant populations of many of the well-known large mammals, including common eland (Tragelaphus oryx), African buffalo (Syncerus caffer), lions (Panthera leo), black rhinoceros, African elephant (Loxodonta Africana), Mountain zebra (Equus zebra), and hippopotamus (Hippopotamus amphibius). The Cape Floristic Region, the smallest of the six recognised floral kingdoms of the world, is an area of extraordinarily high diversity and endemism, and is home to over 9,000 vascular plant species, of which 69 percent are endemic. RED DATA BOOK SPECIES IN THE CAPE FLORISTIC REGION: THREATS, PRIORITIES AND TARGET SPECIES. 1. Furthermore, five of South Africa's 12 endemic plant families and 160 endemic genera are found only in this hotspot. Introduction. Today, however, nearly all of these populations have disappeared or have been reduced to tiny remnant groups. It is located in the Mediterranean biome and Afrotropic ecozone. The Cape Peninsula has 2,285 species of plants, 90 being endemic to the peninsula, the Cederberg has 1,778, including the local cedar Widdringtonia cedarbergensis (EN). However, the "biome" refers only to the two key vegetation groups (Fynbos and Renosterveld) within the region, whereas both the "region" and the "kingdom" refer to the general geographical area and include other vegetation types in the Forest, Nama Karoo, Succulent Karoo and Thicket Biomes, but exclude peripheral outliers of the Fynbos Biome such as the Kamiesberg, North-western and Escarpmen… Fynbos is a small belt of natural shrubland or heathland vegetation located in the Western Cape and Eastern Cape provinces of South Africa. The site includes eight representative protected areas: This article incorporates CC BY-3.0 text from the reference[1], Smallest of the six recognised floral kingdoms of the world, "Cape Region" redirects here. Translations of select content are available in French and Japanese on abridged versions of the CEPF website. It is one of the five temperate Mediterranean-type systems on the hotspots list, and is one of only two hotspots that encompass an entire floral kingdom (the other being New Caledonia)[citation needed]. 48, No. The analysis of geographical elements in genera; 5. The Cape floristic region is one of the six floral kingdoms in the world. 2014: Nominated for extension under original criteria 2015: Extended property inscribed under original criteria produces a wealth of blooms. — Л.: Наука, Ленинградское отделение, 1978. Koedoe – African Protected Area Conservation and Science, Conservation International: Cape floristic Region – biodiversity hotspot, List of Southern African indigenous trees and woody lianes, List of marine animals of the Cape Peninsula and False Bay, List of seaweeds of the Cape Peninsula and False Bay, Drakensberg alti-montane grasslands and woodlands, Drakensberg montane grasslands, woodlands and forests, Maputaland-Pondoland bushland and thickets, Nieuwoudtville-Roggeveld Dolerite Renosterveld, Richtersveld Sandy Coastal Scorpionstailveld, Southern Namaqualand Quartzite Klipkoppe Shrubland, Southern Richtersveld Inselberg Shrubland, Stinkfonteinberge Eastern Apron Shrubland, Pondoland-Natal Sandstone Coastal Sourveld, Subantarctic Biotic Herbfield and Grassland, Addo Elephant National Park Marine Protected Area, Namaqua National Park Marine Protected Area, Table Mountain National Park Marine Protected Area, Agulhas Bank Complex Marine Protected Area, Browns Bank Complex Marine Protected Area, iSimangaliso Offshore Marine Protected Area, Namaqua Fossil Forest Marine Protected Area, Prince Edward Islands Marine Protected Area, Southeast Atlantic Seamounts Marine Protected Area, Southwest Indian Seamounts Marine Protected Area, Port Elizabeth Corals Marine Protected Area, Department of Environment, Forestry and Fisheries, Nelson Mandela Bay Metropolitan Municipality, South African Association for Marine Biological Research, South African Environmental Observation Network, South African Institute for Aquatic Biodiversity, South African National Biodiversity Institute, Percy FitzPatrick Institute of African Ornithology Virtual Museum, University of KwaZulu-Natal Botanical Garden, List of authors of South African botanical taxa, List of authors of South African animal taxa, Environmental impact of recreational diving, International Union for Conservation of Nature, South African Sustainable Seafood Initiative, National Environmental Management Act, 1998, National Environmental Management: Biodiversity Act, 10 of 2004, National Environmental Management: Integrated Coastal Management Act, 24 of 2008, National Environmental Management: Protected Areas Act, 57 of 2003, List of field guides to South African biota, List of countries where Arabic is an official language, List of World Heritage Sites in South Africa, https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Cape_Floristic_Region&oldid=982815043, Mediterranean forests, woodlands, and scrub, Short description is different from Wikidata, Articles with unsourced statements from July 2013, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License, This page was last edited on 10 October 2020, at 14:35. 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